Chester F. Carlson papers
Scope and Contents
The Chester F. Carlson papers consist of a variety of documents and materials acquired by Carlson during his lifetime. A majority of the collection are awards given to Carlson by various organizations, such as the Society of Photographic Scientists and Engineers and the Rochester Museum of Arts and Sciences. Similarly, the collection includes memorabilia related to Carlson, such as a book of postage stamps featuring his portrait. The collection also contains materials related to the Haloid Photographic Company, such as annual reports from the 1950s and copies of the Haloid-o-Scope newsletter. There is also an office memorandum with a brief description of the invention process from 1952. The collection also includes several scrapbooks of articles featuring Carlson and his work. The documents in these books are photocopies of the originals. Finally, the collection contains personal items belonging to Carlson, such as the contents of his desk and several photographs.
Conditions Governing Access
This collection is open to researchers.
Biographical / Historical
Chester Floyd Carlson (1906-1968) was born in Seattle, WA on February 8, 1906 to Olof and Ellen (née Hawkins) Carlson. The family moved around a lot, mostly as a result of trying to find relief for Carlson’s father’s tuberculosis. Eventually they settled in San Bernardino, CA. After completing grammar school and high school in the area, Carlson attended Riverside’s Junior College for three years, where he studied chemistry. He was then admitted to the California Institute of Technology, from which he graduated with a B.S. in physics in 1930.
Unfortunately, Carlson graduated from Cal Tech in the midst of the Great Depression. He managed to find work as a Research Engineer at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York City. Bored with his job, he requested a transfer to the company’s patent office. After working as an assistant to Bell’s patent attorney for two years, he was laid off in 1933. Once again faced with the prospect of trying to find work during the Great Depression, Carlson managed to find a position as a patent attorney at the law firm Austin & Dix. About a year later he left the firm to begin working in the patent department of the electronics firm P. R. Mallory and Company. While working at P. R. Mallory, Carlson began attending night school at the New York Law School, from which he earned his LL.B. in 1939.
Carlson continued working at P. R. Mallory, eventually becoming the manager of the patent department. While in this position, Carlson began seriously thinking about alternative methods for copying paper documents. Although means already existed to duplicate materials, the methods were often involved. He also wanted to avoid the area of photography, as the field was already dominated by the Eastman Kodak Company. Carlson started researching his topic at the New York Public Library, where he read about Paul Selenyi’s studies on electrostatic images. Working in his kitchen during his free time, Carlson managed to discover the principles of electrophotography in 1937.
Realizing that he needed a lab space to continue his work, Carlson rented out the backroom of a beauty parlor in Astoria. He then hired a German refugee, Otto Kornei, to help with his research. Together they were able to produce the first xerographic image on October 22, 1938 of the following line of text: 10-22-38 ASTORIA. Carlson filed a patent for his research on April 4, 1939 and began looking for others to invest in his ideas. Finally, in 1844, Battelle Memorial Institute in Columbus, OH agreed to fund Carlson’s research.
A year later, Carlson’s research was mentioned in Eastman Kodak Company’s technical bulletin and caught the eye of Joseph C. Wilson, president of a small photo-paper business, the Haloid Company. In 1947, Carlson and Battelle Memorial Institute entered into an agreement with Haloid, giving the company the right to develop a Xerographic Machine. The $2,500 that Carlson received during the negotiations was the first money he earned based on his idea.
The Haloid Company officially announced the concept of “xerography” – meaning “dry writing” – on October 22, 1948 at the Optical Society of America’s annual meeting in Detroit, MI. Carlson was soon brought in as a consultant to Haloid and moved to the company’s home base in Rochester, NY. The company managed to produce a Model A xerography machine in 1949, though the device proved difficult to operate. It was not until 1959 that the first successful xerography machine was introduced, the Xerox 914. The Haloid Company changed its name to Xerox Corporation on April 18, 1961 to highlight its new focus on xerographic products and services.
Chester Carlson was married twice, first to Elsa von Mallen in 1934, then to Dorris Hudgins in 1946. He died on September 19, 1968. Up until the Xerox 914 was produced, Carlson had lived in relative poverty, but when he died he was one of the richest men in America. Perhaps uncomfortable with his new found wealth, Carlson donated much of his money anonymously to various causes, such as organizations that supported world peace, civil rights groups, and the United Negro College Fund. He received many awards for his contributions to the field of science, including the Inventor of the Year in 1964 and the Horatio Alger Award in 1966.
5.4 Linear Feet (4 file boxes, 1 clamshell box)
Materials related to Chester F. Carlson, inventor of xerography, the technology used by Xerox photocopier machines. The collection contains a variety of materials including awards, memorabilia, photographs, books, scrapbooks, articles, and annual reports of the Haloid Photographic Company (now the Xerox Corporation).
The scrapbooks are housed in one clamshell box, while the awards, memorabilia, photographs, and personal items are spread throughout four file boxes.
C.S. South, Shelves 380-382, 384, 472
Finding aid created by Lara Nicosia in November 2010.
- Chester F. Carlson papers
- RIT Archives
- Lara Nicosia
- 09 November 2010
- Description rules
- Describing Archives: A Content Standard
- Language of description
- Script of description
- Language of description note
- December 2020: multilevel description added from inventory by Gigi Ye